With a size, shape and material type in mind, learning more about the details will help you to get more of what you want out of a hot tub – without wasting money on sales ploys and marketing hype.


All spa jets have a specific GPM, PSI and flow rate. For the jet to perform properly, the spas plumbing, HP of the pump and filter need to be properly sized to match the jets ratings.

Unfortunately, many manufacturers do not fully understand how to calculate Head Loss H L = (F) X (L/D) X (V 2 /2g) and compensate by over jetting a spa, using gimmicky jet packs or excessive HP pumps.

The ideal hot tub will have a perfect ratio of jets to horsepower to balance out the Head Loss of the plumbing and provide optimal jet action and energy efficiency.


Spa covers are not an option, they are a necessity. Heat rises, and a quality cover will not only conserve energy and save money on electricity, but protect the hot tub from dirt, weather and unwanted visitors.

There are two styles of spa cover Covers that use expanded styrene foam to reduce heat loss through conduction and spa covers that use expanded styrene foam in addition to a thermal reflector (survival blanket). Covers that include the thermal reflector provided greater heat loss protection.

Reputable dealers should always include the required spa cover as standard equipment, not misrepresent it as a free bonus or an extra charge.


Although color lighting systems, flowing water features and audio equipment are not a necessary feature of a spa, these options can enhance the soaking experience and be a great addition to a hot tub party. If you are considering adding these features, special consideration should be given to the placement so that you can actually see them in action. An example would be some spas have lights inside the actual jet so when people are siting in the spa you can’t actually see the jets.

Another issue to consider is that some spas have a negative edge or water feature which prevents the spa cover from properly sealing and lose a lot of heat and use more energy to heat the spa.